11/19/21…    14,537.69 

  11/12/21…    14,522.07 

    6/27/13…    15,000.00


(THE DOW JONES INDEX:  11/19/21… 35,870.95; 11/12/21…36,089.86; 6/27/13… 15,000.00)



LESSON for November 19, 2021 – COP-OUT in SCOTLAND


"We may not feel much like James Bond -- not all of us necessarily look like James Bond,” BritBoss Bojo did acknowledge on the opening day of the COP-26 summit in Glasgow, Scotland, “…but we have the opportunity and we have the duty to make this summit the moment when humanity finally began, began to defuse that bomb," he said.

"The Doomsday device is real, and the clock is ticking to the furious rhythm of hundreds of billions of turbines and systems ... covering the Earth in a suffocating blanket of CO2," he added.

Summit descended twelve days later, the two hundred plus delegates and twenty thousand attachees packed their bags and got the hell out of Glasgow – some maybe stopping off for a bit of R&R in London or Paris, others scurrying home to their constituencies with their reports (and excuses).

Titled and freelance observers pondered the results and consequences of the twelve-plus days of talking and, by and large, determined the bottom line to have been below the horizon of expectations.  But failure had been on the table since news that China and Russia would not be attending the meetings wafted eastwards from Moscow and Beijing like a cloud of dirty pollutants – not only CO2, but pig, cow (and Biden) farts and… particularly prescient given the extra days and hours of dealmaking, coal smoke.

“Frailest, purest girl the world has seen
According to her Ma, according to her Pa
And everybody said
That she knew no sin and did no wrong
Till she walked the streets of the big black smoke
Of the big black smoke

– The Kinks



The delegates, now back in their own backyards, are trying to figure out how to get through the winter when artificial heating is not only politically incorrect but prohibitively expensive…  With prices surging worldwide for heating oil, natural gas and other fuels, the U.S. government said Wednesday it expects households to see their heating bills jump as much as 54% compared to last winter…” (ABC News)

So, although everybody will be cold or, if not, at risk of further warming and either rising tides or drought (no Mister In-Betweens here), some will be celebrating the holiday season with perhaps the same hopeful foreboding that America’s President Joe exclaimed at the close of his address on the first day of procedures, November 1st, that “may God save this planet.”  People sure don’t seem likely to.

But there were some memorable moments amidst the denialism and denunciations – nuggets (not coal, nor gold but something in-between) of substance on which a foundation for a New World Order might be erected.  For the believers, call it a Twelve Days of Glasgow… well, not exactly a miracle, but happenstances as may be that foundation for miracles when other, if not better, circumstances arise and/or arrive.  Perhaps at the proposed COP-27 which, some say, will take place in Egypt.  Perhaps elsewhere.  Perhaps nowhere and never.

Last week’s Lesson covered the preparations for COP-26, the arrival and situation of participants, the intrigues surround the Messrs. Xi and Putin and opening ceremonies.  Now it’s on to the proceedings.

In any event, a review of the Twelve Days of Glasgow might look, and sound, something like this…

On the first day in Glasgow, our leaders gave to we…

A pivot on survival of world trees.






By Ivana Kottasová and Rob Picheta, CNN Updated 8:36 AM ET, Tue November 2, 2021

Glasgow, Scotland (CNN)

Nearly 120 world leaders gathered in Glasgow on Monday to address what scientists and health experts say is the world's biggest crisis: climate change.

The meeting came on the heels of a G20 summit that delivered, at best, mixed results on climate, with the leaders of the world's richest countries failing to agree on key targets, such as a firm deadline for the end of coal power. But there are some glimmers of hope.

Here are the key takeaways from the first full day of the UN's COP26 climate summit:


A landmark deal on forests

The first major commitment to emerge from the conference was a big one: more than 100 leaders, representing more than 85% of the world's forests, agreed to end deforestation by 2030. The deal will be officially announced Tuesday, but a UK government statement confirmed the deal late Monday.

Among the nations taking part in the pledge are Canada, Russia, Colombia, Indonesia, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, which holds some of the world's most important carbon sinks.

President Joe Biden apologized to his fellow world leaders that the United States withdrew from the Paris Agreement under the Trump administration.

"I guess I shouldn't apologize, but I do apologize for the fact that the United States -- the last administration -- pulled out of the Paris Accords and put us sort of behind the 8 ball," Biden said in Glasgow.

Biden reentered the agreement just hours after he was sworn into office in January.

As world leaders delivered their opening remarks, Biden was seated toward the back of the huge plenary room, in keeping with the tradition of seats being allocated in alphabetical order.

"We will demonstrate to the world that the United States is not only back at the table, but hopefully leading by the power of our example," the President said during his own opening address.

But while Biden struck an ambitious tone during his speech, telling attendees his "administration is working overtime to show that our climate commitment is about action, not words," a shadow hung over his climate agenda across the ocean in Washington.

Democratic lawmakers have been debating, and so far failing to agree on, an economic package that includes $555 billion in climate change provisions.

The UK wheels out the big names

The UK government, which is hosting the UN climate summit in Glasgow, has tried its best to press it upon world leaders that now is the time to act on climate.

The opening ceremony saw Prime Minister Boris Johnson telling his fellow heads of governments that they can be just like James Bond, the famous (albeit fictional) 007 agent.

"We may not feel much like James Bond -- not all of us necessarily look like James Bond -- but we have the opportunity and we have the duty to make this summit the moment when humanity finally began, began to defuse that bomb," he said.

"The Doomsday device is real, and the clock is ticking to the furious rhythm of hundreds of billions of turbines and systems ... covering the Earth in a suffocating blanket of CO2," he said.

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Royalty -- both real and of the TV variety -- was also in attendance, with Prince Charles urging leaders to work together, and the celebrated naturalist and broadcaster David Attenborough telling them future generations would judge them by their actions during this conference.

Later in the day, Queen Elizabeth II welcomed world leaders in a video address played during a reception.

"For more than seventy years, I have been lucky to meet and to know many of the world's great leaders. And I have perhaps come to understand a little about what made them special," the Queen said in her address. "It has sometimes been observed that what leaders do for their people today is government and politics. But what they do for the people of tomorrow -- that is statesmanship."

India makes net-zero promise

Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi made headlines on Monday by announcing a net-zero emissions target, pledging India will become carbon neutral by 2070.

While it was a major announcement, as India had not yet put a date on its net-zero ambition, the 2070 target is a decade later than China's, and two decades after the world as a whole needs to achieve net-zero emissions in order to avoid temperatures from rising beyond 1.5 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial times.

But Ulka Kelkar, climate program director at WRI India, an environmental research organization, said that because of India's economic development and energy mix, the target date should not be compared to those of the US or Europe.

"It was much more than we were hoping for," said Kelkar. "Net-zero became a topic of public discourse only six months ago. This is something very new for Indians."

"Just having this concept understood in India is going to give a very strong signal to all sectors of industry," she added.

With India's announcement, all of the world's top 10 coal-power countries have committed to net-zero, according to climate think tank Ember.

Australia brags about exceeding low emissions targets

Australian Prime Minister Scott Morrison trumpeted his country's work on cutting emissions, claiming that Australia was on track to lower the country's emissions by 35% until 2030.

Those figures would exceed the country's Paris agreement commitment. The problem, though, is that Australia's targets are dramatically lower than many other major economies in the first place.

Australia has pledged to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by 26% to 28% by 2030, from 2005 levels, a commitment dwarfed by those made by the United States, European Union and United Kingdom, among other developed nations.

US President Joe Biden, for example, increased his country's pledge in April to reduce emissions by 50% to 52% in the same time frame. The Australian Climate Council, which is independent of the government, has said a 75% slash in emissions would be more appropriate.

Morrison's bullish speech will have done little to boost Australia's standing at the conference. Despite being devastated by wildfires in 2019 and 2020, the country's government has concerned other developed nations with its rhetoric and moves on the climate crisis in recent weeks.

Small nations' disappointment

Delegates from smaller nations have expressed their disappointment with the action (or rather, lack of action) by the world's richest nations.

Mia Mottley, the Prime Minister of Barbados, an island that is already deeply threatened by rising sea levels, has warned that the climate crisis facing her country is perilous. She said it is a "code red to China, to the US, to Europe, to India."

Antigua and Barbuda's Prime Minister Gaston Browne told CNN he was "encouraged by the increased ambitions" set by world leaders at the COP26 summit, but he also expressed disappointment, saying the targets set don't go "far enough in order to contain rising global temperatures at 1.5 degrees Celsius."

And Panama's President Laurentino Cortizo said he is not feeling optimistic about what the COP26 conference can achieve.

"We've heard all of this before. What we need is an action," Cortizo said. "I am not optimistic there will be enough of it."

Covid-19 measures hampering the negotiations

The COP26 President, British lawmaker Alok Sharma, said that being able to hold in-person negotiations, despite the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic, was a key goal of his presidency.

"For me it was vitally important that we have a physical meeting where every country is able to sit at the table, the biggest emitters, together with smaller nations, those who are the front line of climate change, and to be able to look each other in the eye as part of this negotiation," he told reporters on Sunday.

But keeping the event Covid-free has been a challenge.

All attendees have been asked to wear masks and take daily coronavirus tests. And while the venue is huge (approximately 1 kilometer from one end to the other), the sheer number of people on site makes social distancing difficult.

The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, the body that is in charge of the negotiations, has admitted the pandemic is causing issues. For example, due to social distancing, the largest room reserved for negotiations can only hold 144 seats -- even though there are 193 parties to be represented at the conference.

CNN's Amy Cassidy and Ingrid Formanek contributed to this report.


On the second day in Glasgow, our leaders gave to we…

Two big, fat farts…

And a pivot on survival of world trees.






By Ivana Kottasová and Angela Dewan, CNN Updated 11:44 AM ET, Tue November 2, 2021


Glasgow, Scotland (CNN)  More than 100 world leaders representing over 85% of the planet's forests committed on Tuesday to ending and reversing deforestation and land degradation by 2030, in the first substantial deal announced at the COP26 climate talks in Glasgow.

Among the nations taking part are Canada, Russia, Brazil, Colombia, Indonesia and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, all of which have significant tracts of forest. Brazil in particular has come under criticism for allowing an increase in the deforestation of the Amazon in recent years. The US and China will also be party to the agreement.

The deal is consequential to the climate as forests, when they are logged or degrade, emit carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere, accounting for around 11% of the world's total CO2 emissions.

The deal was formally unveiled on Tuesday by US President Joe Biden, who said leaders need to approach the issue of deforestation" with the same seriousness of purpose as decarbonizing our economies."

"The United States is going to lead by example at home," he said at the second day of the conference, citing executive orders signed earlier in his administration that set land aside for conservation.

Twelve donor countries have committed £8.75 billion ($12 billion) of public funds to protection and restoration, alongside £5.3 billion ($7.2 billion) of private investment. CEOs from more than dozens of financial institutions, including Aviva, Schroders and Axa, are also committing to ending investment in activities that lead to deforestation.


The pledge was first announced by the British government on Monday evening in a statement, and was trumpeted by British Prime Minister Boris Johnson as a "landmark agreement to protect and restore the earth's forests."

"These great teeming ecosystems -- these cathedrals of nature - are the lungs of our planet," the statement said, referring to remarks Johnson is expected to make Tuesday. "Forests support communities, livelihoods and food supply, and absorb the carbon we pump into the atmosphere. They are essential to our very survival."

"With today's unprecedented pledges, we will have a chance to end humanity's long history as nature's conqueror, and instead become its custodian."

The agreement will likely provide a morale boost at COP26, which got off to shaky start after the G20 leaders' summit in Rome over the weekend failed to result in an agreement on firm new climate commitments, particularly on when to end the use of coal.

It is also a breakthrough after years of negotiations on how to protect forests. There have been several different schemes to try and curb deforestation, including one that awarded credits to people conserving forests that could be traded on markets. These schemes often faced fierce opposition, particularly from Latin America, where indigenous groups and leaders said forests should be fully protected and not commodified.

"Indonesia is blessed as the most carbon rich country in the world on vast rainforests, mangroves, oceans and peatlands," Indonesian President Joko Widodo said in a statement. "We are committed to protecting these critical carbon sinks and our natural capital for future generations."

Rainforest Foundation Norway welcomed the deal, but said that funding should only be given to countries that showed results.

"This is the largest amount of forest funding ever pledged and it comes at a crucial time for the world's rainforests. The new commitments have the potential to speed up necessary action from both governments and companies. We hope this funding will spur the political changes needed," said Rainforest Foundation Norway Secretary General Toerris Jaeger in a statement.

"With big money comes big opportunities, but also great responsibilities. There is not time for baby-steps. Funding should therefore only reward real and substantial action taken by rainforest countries and those who respect the rights of Indigenous people and local communities."

There are some reasons to be cautious, as several past forest protection schemes have come and gone.

In a years-long partnership, Norway agreed to transfer Indonesia $1 billion to reduce its emissions from deforestation, which the Indonesian government used to put a moratorium on new logging permits. That deal fell apart recently when Indonesian officials terminated the agreement, complaining the funds were not being transferred adequately. Norway's International Climate and Forest Initiative said in a statement that it considered the discussions around payments were "constructive and progressing well."

CNN's Angela Dewan wrote from London.





By Ivana Kottasová, Amy Cassidy and Ingrid Formanek, CNN Updated 4:11 AM ET, Wed November 3, 2021


Glasgow, Scotland (CNN)  The mood in Glasgow was optimistic on Tuesday as world leaders wrapped up their high-level summit at the COP26 climate conference. Several major announcements brightened the outlook on whether the meeting can achieve meaningful results.

Here's what happened on day two.

A big methane pledge

Around 100 nations and parties have signed on to a global pledge to cut methane emissions by 30% of 2020 levels by 2030, the European Commission President Ursula von der Leyen announced in Glasgow on Tuesday.

Methane, which is the main component of natural gas, is an extremely potent greenhouse gas. Invisible and odorless, it has 80 times more warming power in the near-term than carbon dioxide.

Von der Leyen said cutting the methane emissions "will immediately slow down climate change."



Helen Mountford, the vice president of climate and economics at World Resources Institute, an environmental research organization, said cutting methane emissions was essential to prevent the planet from warming beyond 1.5 degrees Celsius, a key threshold identified by scientists.

"This pledge ... sets a strong floor in terms of the ambition we need globally," Mountford said in a statement. "Strong and rapid action to cut methane emissions offers a range of benefits, from limiting near-term warming and curbing air pollution to improved food security and better public health."

US President Joe Biden said the push to reduce methane emissions is as much an economic opportunity as it is an environmental one.

"This isn't just something we have to do to protect the environment, our future," Biden said Tuesday. "It's an enormous opportunity, enormous opportunity for all of us, all of our nations, to create jobs and make meaningful climate goals a core part of our global economic recovery, as well."

Biden slams Xi and Putin for skipping conference

US President Joe Biden criticized China and Russia for not doing more to tackle the climate crisis during a news conference at the COP26 climate summit, questioning Chinese President Xi Jinping's global leadership.

"The fact that China is trying to assert, understandably, a new role in the world, as a world leader -- not showing up? Come on," he told reporters. "The single most important thing that's got the attention of the world is climate."

In response to a question from CNN's Phil Mattingly, he said: "I think it's been a big mistake, quite frankly, for China, with respect to China, not showing up."

He said the same of Russian President Vladimir Putin.

"The rest of the world is going to look to China and say, 'what value added are they providing?' And they've lost an ability to influence people around the world and all the people here at COP, the same way I would argue with regard to Russia."

But China warms to '1.5 degrees'

China's Special Envoy for Climate Change Xie Zhenhua said Tuesday his country was "not resisting" the target of limiting global warming to 1.5 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels.

China has been reluctant to strictly commit to the 1.5 degree figure, and has preferred to say they will commit to keep warming "below 2 degrees and as close as possible to 1.5 degrees."

But Xie appeared to be warming up to the target on Tuesday.

"I do not resist the 1.5 degree target. That is a part of the Paris Agreement goals, actually. Talking about global climate goals needs to be based on rules. Since 1.5 degrees Celsius is a part of the Paris goals, certainly we're not against this target," he said.

China is the world's largest polluter, so its support for the goal is vital. Xie is China's top climate negotiator and as such, he is arguably one of the most powerful people attending the Glasgow summit. Earlier on Tuesday, he criticized the West for "failing to deliver" on their commitment to provide $100 billion annual climate financing for developing countries.

"I recently talked to the top COP26 president Alok Sharma, and with (US climate envoy) John Kerry and ministers for many other countries. And they told me that we need to wait until 2022 or even 2023 to achieve the target 100 billion US dollars, the target set for before 2020," he told reporters.

Meanwhile, speaking to CNN's Christiane Amanpour on Tuesday, Kerry said the US was working with China "without challenging them in any personal way."

"China has said 'we are going to strictly limit coal,'" Kerry said. "What we are trying to do is work with China in a cooperative way to show how they could speed up the transition."

South Africa's plan to transition from coal

The US, UK, France, Germany and European Union have announced they will help fund South Africa's transition away from coal.

UK Prime Minister Boris Johnson said the initial $8.5 billion partnership would help South Africa decarbonize its coal-intensive energy system. The details of the funding have not yet been announced, and diplomats expect the fine print to be worked out in the months ahead.

Climate scientists and some diplomats say the South Africa agreement could pave the way for similar deals with other developing countries that are heavy polluters -- a critical step in containing global warming and avoiding a full-blown climate catastrophe.

The promise to finance a transition from coal will be noticed by politicians in developing nations because South Africa is among the most coal-dependent nations in the world.

A steel deal and UK companies to go net zero

More than 40 countries, including the UK, US, India and China, as well as the EU, have backed the first international commitment to achieve "near-zero" emission steel production by 2030.

The steel industry is one of the world's top carbon dioxide producers. It is also one of the trickiest industries to decarbonize, because alternatives to the coal needed to produce it isn't yet widely available.

Roz Bulleid, the deputy policy director at Green Alliance, an NGO, said green steel technology is key to achieving 1.5 degrees.

"It's great to see the UK rallying international action on clean steel: addressing the sector's climate impact has long been in the 'too hard' box but we now have real solutions that can and must be scaled up," he said in a statement.

Meanwhile, the UK government is expected to announce Wednesday that financial institutions and publicly listed companies will be required to publish detailed plans on how to hit their net-zero climate targets.

Vulnerable countries ask for help

The second day of the leaders' summit saw a number of emotional speeches from leaders of African and small island countries.

The Climate Vulnerable Forum (CVF), a group that unites the 48 countries most at-risk from climate change, convened a meeting at COP26 on Tuesday, calling on the rich world to help them transition to green economies and deal with the impacts of rising temperatures.

CVF ambassador and former Maldives president Mohamed Nasheed urged large and small countries to stand together and "not give up."

"It is extremely naive for leaders to say they will save people's jobs by keeping to fossil fuels," he said. "Everyone is now vulnerable, not just us little islands."

Leaders from the group had a similar refrain: while their countries are among the least-polluting in the world, they on the frontlines of the climate crisis.

"The IPCC shows Africa is warming faster than any continent in the world even though we are the least emitters," Ghana President Nana Akufo-Addo told the forum, referring to the UN's Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. "This is why we stand with the Africa Group and the CVF in calling on developed countries to lead in mitigating emissions."

Kerry also attended the meeting. While he acknowledged the hardships vulnerable countries face, he also urged them to act on climate and cut their own emissions.

"I'll be very direct with you folks. Your complaint about what got us here is legitimate. The future is going to be defined but what we choose to do," Kerry said. "If we're going to be responsible to ourselves into the world, we have to reduce the emissions and we also have to be responsible by doing enough for adaptation to take care of damage has been done, and to help countries be able to work through it."

More details on deforestation

The big pledge to end deforestation by 2030, announced by more than 100 countries on Monday, began to take a clearer shape as several governments announced concrete commitments.

The EU has pledged €1 billion ($1.1 billion) to help protect the world's forests over the next five years, a quarter of which will be reserved for the Congo Basin pledge, a fund established to protect the world's second largest tropical rainforest against the threats posed by industrial logging and mining.

The UK said it would commit £1.5 billion ($2 billion) over five years to support the pledge, including £350 million ($475 million) for tropical forests in Indonesia and up to £300 million ($408 million) intended for the Amazon.

And Biden promised $9 billion on behalf of the US.

"This plan is the first of its kind, taking a whole of government approach and working our case with Congress to employ up to $9 billion in US funding through 2030 to conserve and restore our forests and mobilize billions more from our partners," he said.


FROM – Guardian U.K.




Summary of the main developments on the second day of the UN climate summit in Glasgow

By Tom Levitt and Bibi van der Zee  Tue 2 Nov 2021 15.31 EDT


World leaders agree deal to end deforestation, as we reported this morning. Xi Jinping, Jair Bolsonaro and Joe Biden are among the leaders signing the Glasgow Leaders’ Declaration on Forest and Land Use.

Biden has announced a pledge to cut global methane emissions by 30% by 2030. Reducing these emissions was touted as one of the most immediate opportunities to slow global heating before the summit, and almost 100 nations have now set a target to cut methane emissions 30% by 2030.

And the US has rejoined the High Ambition Coalition, with the aim of achieving the 1.5C goal at the UN climate talks.

The Glasgow Breakthrough Agenda, a plan to coordinate the introduction of clean technologies, including clean electricity and electric vehicles in order to rapidly drive down their cost has been agreed at the Cop26 summit by world leaders, including the UK, US, India and China.

African countries will spend $6bn on adapting to climate impacts, says our environment correspondent Fiona Harvey. African countries are preparing to spend at least $6bn a year from their tax revenues on adapting to the effects of the climate crisis and are calling on the rich world to provide $2.5bn a year for the next five years to enable them to meet their goals.

‘You might as well bomb us’, Surangel Whipps Jr, the president of Palau, told world leaders, speaking of the pain of watching his country suffer “a slow and painful death”.

Ecuador is to massively expand protected reserve around Galápagos islands, Guillermo Lasso Mendoza, Ecuador’s president, announced. The country would add an additional 60,000 sq km of protected ocean to the 130,000 sq km that already exist around the islands.

Amazon’s founder, Jeff Bezos, has defended his trip to space telling 
delegates that it made him realise how “finite and fragile” the Earth is.

Meanwhile, the UK, EU, and US signed off on a new $8.5bn Just Energy Transition Partnership with South Africa to help reduce the country’s reliance on coal.

Police Scotland has apologised to women in Glasgow who had to walk home in darkness on Monday night after well-lit streets were blocked off owing to Cop26 climate summit security concerns.

And finally, the climate activist Greta Thunberg has been 
filmed singing some choice words for the world leaders inside the Cop26 conference in Glasgow.

What is Cop26 and why does it matter? The Guardian’s complete guide


On the third day in Glasgow, our leaders gave to we…

Three climate debt traps

Two big, fat farts…

And a pivot on survival of world trees.






By Ivana Kottasová, Amy Cassidy, Ingrid FormanekAngela Dewan and Charles Riley, CNN  Updated 5:24 PM ET, Wed November 3, 2021



(CNN)As world leaders left Glasgow, delegates at COP26 rolled up their sleeves to do the dirty work.

National negotiators are now diving into the nitty-gritty of the talks, trying to reach agreements on everything from emissions reporting transparency to forest protection.

Each day of the conference has has a set theme to guide conversations and deal-making. On Wednesday, the umbrella topic was finance.

Here's what happened.

A breakthrough on fossil fuel funding

At least 20 countries have agreed to end financing for fossil fuel projects abroad, a UK official told CNN, in a deal expected to be announced Thursday.


Another source close to the COP26 negotiations said that the US was party to the agreement. Officials at the US State Department did not respond to CNN to confirm the country's involvement.

Several countries had already agreed to end international financing for coal, but this agreement would be the first of its kind to include oil and gas projects as well.

The announcement comes after a series of reports over the past several months that showed the world needs immediately ramp down the burning fossil fuel if the planet has a shot to avoid warming to 1.5 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels.

recent study published in the journal Nature, for example, found that a vast majority of the planet's remaining oil, natural gas, and coal reserves must remain in the ground by 2050 to avoid the worst consequences of climate change. Most regions around the world, according to the authors, must reach peak fossil fuel production now or within the next decade to limit the critical climate threshold.

The financing deal "represents a change in norms that would have been unthinkable only a few years ago," Iskander Erzini Vernoit, a climate finance expert at think tank E3G, told CNN. "We've seen this go from the niche frontier concepts to at the core of the mainstream."

Poorest countries face climate 'debt traps'

The world's 46 least-developed countries spoke out about the damage climate change is causing to their nations -- and the help they desperately need to deal with it.

Rich nations have promised to provide $100 billion a year to the developing world for adaptation and mitigation by 2020, a promise that has not yet been fulfilled. However, many of the world's poorest countries say even that amount is not enough, and they are increasingly pushing for climate reparations for the loss and damage that's been caused over the years.

The limited funds that are available remain inaccessible to many.

"We don't have the capacity, access is a huge problem ... because most of these funding windows have different requirements, different challenges," said Sonam Wangdi, chair of the Least Developed Countries Group.

"I mean, if you have a climate disaster, and you apply for a loan, it takes four or five years. It doesn't make sense. You're not able to help your people, not able to refinance, rebuild, or secure livelihoods."

The poorest countries are then forced to borrow money, leading them into "debt traps," he said.

A bill to fulfill Biden's forest promise

A top Democrat in the US House of Representatives introduced a bill to put financial weight behind US President Joe Biden's commitment to end and reverse deforestation.

House Majority Leader Steny Hoyer's legislation would establish a $9 billion trust fund at the US State Department to finance bilateral forest conservation projects with developing countries around the world, the same amount Biden said the US should contribute.

"We need them to keep it in the ground," Hoyer told CNN -- speaking about preventing countries from cutting down trees. "The first step [is] stop losing the forest."

More than 100 world leaders representing over 85% of the planet's forests committed this week to ending and reversing deforestation and land degradation by 2030. It was the first substantial deal announced at the COP26 climate summit in Glasgow.

Twelve parties to the agreement -- including the US and EU -- committed $12 billion in public funding to protect and restore forests, in addition to $7.2 billion of private capital.

Climate finance scales 'out of whack'

Gernot Laganda, the World Food Programme's chief of climate and disaster risk reduction told CNN that climate finance needs "to immediately balance the scales" to get more funding to the people who are most vulnerable on the climate front lines close to starvation.

Mitigation focuses on making climate change less severe by transitioning to green economy and slashing carbon emissions. Adaptation is all about minimizing the impacts of the rising temperatures. Mitigation funding, for example, would be a grant to build a wind farm, while adaptation money would go into erecting flood defenses.

Laganda said "80% investment [is] in mitigation in energy and electric cars and only a 20% investment in resilience building -- that's woefully out of whack."

Lagands said because the frequency of climate-driven weather extremes has accelerated, more needs to be invested in resilience. In 2020 alone, extreme weather drove 30 million people from their homes, according to WFP.

Bankers against climate change

Banks, insurers, pension funds, money managers and other finance firms with $130 trillion in assets have signed up to tackle the climate crisis, swelling the ranks of a coalition led by former Bank of England governor Mark Carney.

The more than 450 companies across 45 countries that have signed up to the Glasgow Financial Alliance for Net Zero (GFANZ) control over 40% of global banking assets. Its organizers predict it can deliver $100 trillion of finance over the next three decades -- more than $3 trillion a year -- to accelerate the transition to net zero carbon emissions.

While the pledge sounds great, net-zero commitments made by companies often include loopholes, lack transparency and don't include enforcement mechanisms to ensure they follow through.

"We need to ensure that commitments that have been made are tracked and held to account. Ensuring the integrity of these commitments over time is fundamental to actually making a difference and we now need to focus resolutely on the quality of promises made by financial institutions, not just their quantity," said Ben Caldecott, director of the Oxford Sustainable Finance Group at the University of Oxford.


FROM – Guardian U.K.



Summary of the main developments on the third day of the UN climate summit in Glasgow

By Matthew Taylor and Alan Evans  Wed 3 Nov 2021 14.55 EDT


Country pledges at Cop26 would limit global temperature rises to below 2C, the first time the world has been on such a trajectory, according to research from the University of Melbourne.

More than 20 countries and financial institutions have vowed to halt all financing for fossil fuel development overseas and divert the estimated $8bn a year to green energy. The signatories include the US, UK, Denmark and some developing countries, including Costa Rica. The European Investment Bank is one of the financial institutions involved.

The staggering take-up of solar power in India has allowed Delhi to make a more ambitious climate plan at Cop26, according to the country’s foreign secretary.

Hundreds of the world’s biggest banks and pension funds, with assets worth $130tn, have committed to a key climate goal. The finance pledge, known as the Glasgow Financial Alliance for Net Zero (GFANZ), will mean that by 2050 all assets managed by the institutions will be aligned with net zero emissions. But experts cast doubt on the significance of the move, pointing out that the banks are still free to pour cash into fossil fuels in the next decade. Rishi Sunak announced that London will become the world’s “first net-zero finance centre, but environmentalists reacted with scepticism

The heatwaves and wildfires that caused devastation in Europe this summer would not have happened without global heating, new analysis shows. Researchers calculated that for almost all of the past 150 years, the expected frequency of a European summer as hot as 2021 was no higher than once every 10,000 years.

A secretive investor court system poses a real threat to the Paris climate agreement, activists have said, as governments taking action to phase out fossil fuels face a slew of multimillion-dollar lawsuits for lost profits. Data shows a surge in cases under the energy charter treaty (ECT), an obscure international agreement that allows energy corporations to sue governments over policies that could hurt their profits.


On the fourth day in Glasgow, our leaders gave to we…

Four tonnes bleached coral…

Three climate debt traps…

Two big, fat farts…

And a pivot on survival of world trees.




7 takeaways from Day 4 of COP26: 1.8 degrees within reach, a deal on coal, activists request fewer police


By Ivana Kottasová, Amy Cassidy, Ingrid Formanek and Angela Dewan, CNN  Updated 11:08 PM ET, Thu November 4, 2021


Glasgow, Scotland (CNN)

It was energy day at the COP26 climate conference in Glasgow on Thursday -- and some pretty big announcements were made on the end of coal and fossil fuel financing.

Here's what happened on the fourth day of the climate summit.

COP26 pledges could limit warming to 1.8 degrees

Scientists say global warming must be kept to 1.5 degrees above pre-industrial levels to avoid the worst impacts of climate change, and the goal of COP26 is to keep that target in reach.

The International Energy Agency reported Thursday that warming could be limited to 1.8 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels by 2100, if all COP26 commitments made as of Wednesday night are fulfilled on time.

It's big news for COP26, since the UN reported in September the planet is careening toward 2.7 degrees. That analysis took into account countries' pledges before COP26, but didn't include the most recent developments.

"The result is extremely encouraging," IEA Executive Director Fatih Birol told an audience at a COP26 event. "If all the pledges on carbon neutrality and methane pledges were to be fully implemented, we would have a temperature increase trajectory which is 1.8 Celsius. This is excellent."

'Historic breakthrough'

Twenty countries agreed to end financing for fossil fuel projects abroad in a deal announced Thursday. Several countries had already agreed to end international financing for coal, but this agreement is the first of its kind to include oil and gas projects as well.

The strength of the agreement will depend on how many countries ultimately sign up to it, and whether it can get some of the world's biggest fossil fuel financier nations on board.

"This is a historic breakthrough that would not have been possible just a few years ago," Iskander Erzini Vernoit, a climate finance expert at think tank E3G, told CNN. "This leadership group of countries shows how quickly norms on energy are changing."

Jake Schmidt, a senior strategic director at the Natural Resources Defense Council, said the deal "will help drive the transition to renewable energy," but also noted that President Joe Biden still has work to do to make sure the US is fully on board.

Key players missing on coal agreement

The UK government on Thursday announced 23 new countries made commitments Thursday to phase out coal power, but some of the biggest greenhouse gas emitters have so far declined a commitment to phase out the use of coal.

COP26 President Alok Sharma said that an agreement on coal phaseout is one of the top goals of the summit. 

China, India and the US did not sign on to the Global Coal to Clean Power Transition Statement. The new commitments take the total number of signatories to 46, and includes some big coal users, including Indonesia, Ukraine and South Korea.

The targets fall short of what experts, including the IEA, say is required to achieve net-zero by 2050. Net-zero emissions can be achieved if countries reduce current greenhouse gas emissions and also remove some of what's already in the atmosphere, so the net addition is zero.

Developing countries need more money to adapt

The UN Environment Programme reported Thursday that the gap is widening between the impacts of the climate crisis and the world's effort to adapt to them.

In addition to promising to limit warming, governments from wealthy nations in the 2015 Paris Accord reaffirmed their commitment to contribute $100 billion a year to poorer nations to move away from fossil fuel and adapt to climate change-fueled disasters.

Developing nations, particularly those in the Global South, are most likely to endure the worst effects of the climate crisis, despite the small amount they contribute to global greenhouse gas emissions.

But wealthy countries not meeting their original pledge, and the pledge itself hasn't kept pace with the climate crisis's impacts.

"The Paris Accord says adaptation and mitigation funding needs to be in a degree of balance," Inger Andersen, executive director of the UNEP, told CNN. "Those in poorer countries are going to suffer the very most, so ensuring that there's a degree of equity and a degree of global solidarity for adaptation finance is critical."

Activists ask police to back off

Outside the negotiations, climate activists are urging the Scottish First Minister Nicola Sturgeon to intervene in what they say is a heavy police presence in Glasgow.

In a letter addressed to the First Minister, three groups -- COP26 Coalition, Stop Climate Chaos Scotland and the Climate Coalition -- said "the disproportionately high number of officers deployed, combined with intrusive police surveillance" is creating "an atmosphere of fear and intimidation and unacceptable chilling effect on the right to protest."

CNN reached out to Sturgeon's office but did not immediately receive a response.

The call comes before the Global Day of Action for Climate Justice on Saturday, which will attract a large numbers of protesters in Glasgow and around the world.

Activists are asking Sturgeon to ensure that Scotland police commit to protecting their right to protest and not engage in excessive use of force or "targeting organizers for arrest," especially people of color and people with disabilities.

"As we hurtle ever closer to climate catastrophe and negotiators determine the fate of billions around the world it is absolutely vital that civil society movements from Scotland, the UK and around the world are able to make their voices heard on the streets of Glasgow," Mary Church said in a statement on behalf of COP26 Coalition. "Yet police are using intimidatory tactics and abusing their powers to stifle the fundamental right to peaceful protest."

EU pushes against climate reparations

The European Union is not keen on the idea of climate reparations, a big topic of the COP26 summit. Many of the world's least developed and small island countries are pushing for "loss and damage" financing, asking to be compensated for the hardship climate change has already caused their people.

The countries say this should come on top of the $100 billion a year in climate adaptation and mitigation financing wealthy countries promised -- and so far failed -- to begin providing in 2020.

Asked by CNN about the EU's position on the issue, the EU Commission's lead climate negotiator, Jacob Werksmon, said the Paris Agreement "is not a regime about liability and compensation," when asked if the EU was advocating for or against one of the most contentious issues at this year's UN climate conference in Glasgow.

"It is not intended to be a means by which countries negotiate what one country should on a theory of liability, be paying in other countries on the basis of what they're experiencing in terms of impacts," he said, adding that the EU "recognize[d]" that the disproportionate impact of climate change on the least developed countries "is a very, very legitimate concern."

Let's mingle!

A lot was going on in the national pavilion zone on Thursday, where many delegations put up exhibits and hosted events. In an effort to attract more visitors to their hubs, some turned to things that always work: drinks and nibbles.

Brazil's Minister for Energy and Mines, Bento Albuquerque, was hosting drinks at the Brazilian pavilion, while the UK was set to hold an evening reception at its hub later on Thursday.

And while Australia's climate policy is not popular among many of the delegates at COP26, the coffee served in the Aussie pavilion (sponsored by the fossil fuel company Santos) has been a hit.

CNN's Ella Nilsen and Rachel Ramirez contributed to this report.


FROM – Guardian UK



Summary of the main developments on the fourth day of the UN climate summit in Glasgow

By Oliver Holmes and Bibi van der Zee  Thu 4 Nov 2021 14.00 EDT


About half the world’s fossil fuel assets could become worthless by 2036 under a net zero transition, new research has found. A drop in demand for oil and gas will reshape the geopolitical landscape, with countries that are slow to decarbonise likely to suffer but early movers will profit.

Country pledges at Cop26 could limit global temperature rise to 1.8C, according to the International Energy Agency. The figure is lower than the 2C prediction made a day earlier. However, others have warned not to get complacent with estimates. The world remains on “a 2.7 degree pathway, a catastrophic pathway,” said Selwin Hart, UN special adviser.

Global carbon emissions are shooting back to the record level seen before the coronavirus pandemic, analysis has shown. Scientists said the finding is a “reality check” for the world’s nations gathered at the Cop26 climate summit.

Countries have failed to adapt for unavoidable climate damage, the UN has said, despite the fact that extreme weather driven by climate breakdown is hitting the world “with a new ferocity”.

Only 2% of the Great Barrier Reef has escaped coral bleaching since 1998, a study has found, dashing hopes that parts of the world’s largest coral reef system can recover.

UK activist group Insulate Britain blocked Parliament Square in central London. The protest was an apparent response to critics who have accused them of targeting the wrong people. The group is calling on the government to commit to a programme to insulate all Britain’s homes.

Scotland’s largest train operator, ScotRail, has said upwards of 50,000 people are expected at a Saturday protest, and warned travellers that its services in and out of Glasgow will be “extremely busy” this weekend. About 8,000 to 10,000 people would take part in Friday’s youth protests, it added.


On the fifth day in Glasgow, our leaders gave to we…

Five lumps of coal!

Four tonnes bleached coral…

Three climate debt traps…

Two big, fat farts…

And a pivot on survival of world trees.




By Ivana Kottasová, Ingrid Formanek and Rachel Ramirez, CNN  Updated 5:39 PM ET, Fri November 5, 2021


Glasgow, Scotland (CNN)

TGIF! It's been a long week at the COP26 climate conference, where Friday's theme was about the impact of climate change on future generations.

The focus, therefore, turned away from the suits and briefcases in the conference venue to the city center, where thousands of kids and young adults wanted to make sure their voices were heard by marching though Glasgow.

Here's what happened Friday.

'Green wash festival'

Young activists poured into Glasgow from all over the world to demand from leaders at a Fridays for Future demonstration.

Greta Thunberg headlined the event and called the COP26 summit a "global north green wash festival," and said "it should be obvious that we cannot solve a crisis with the same methods that got us into it in the first place."

But while Thunberg was the most anticipated guest at the event, there were many other equally passionate speakers that took the stage, many sharing their personal experiences with the crisis.

Young Filipino climate advocate Jan Karmel Guillermo told crowds the summit was a "crucial moment" in the climate crisis, while Uganda's Vanessa Nakate said "no action is too small to make a difference."

"Today we shall continue to fight on, everywhere we can. We cannot give up now," Nakate told the crowd. "We need to continue holding leaders accountable for their actions. We cannot keep quiet about climate injustice."

America's plan to make carbon capture cheaper

US Secretary of Energy Jennifer Granholm announced Friday the Department of Energy has a new goal: dramatically reduce the cost of removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.

Granholm said Friday at COP26 that the DOE's goal is to reduce the cost to $100 per ton of carbon by 2030. Right now, the department estimates it costs roughly $2,000 per ton.

Scientists say removing greenhouse gas from the atmosphere is crucial to achieving net-zero emissions by 2050 and keeping global warming below 1.5 degrees Celsius. But the technology is still relatively young and incredibly expensive. It also needs to be scaled up significantly in order to make a dent in what humans have already emitted.

"By slashing the costs and accelerating the deployment of carbon dioxide removal, we can take massive amounts of carbon pollution directly from the air and combat the climate crisis," Granholm said in a statement.

A word about the good news from IEA

Several analysts urged caution about the International Energy Agency's (IEA) assessment that global warming could be limited to 1.8 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels by 2100, if all COP26 commitments made as of Wednesday night are fulfilled on time. The IEA was asked by the COP26 President Alok Sharma to keep tabs on the pledges.

Mark Maslin, a professor of earth sciences at University College London, poured cold water on the analysis.

"This is irresponsible, because this is only true if all the country pledges are met and their policies are 100% effective - which they never are," Maslin told CNN. "It's almost like the IEA wants to tell everyone the job is done and we have solved climate change, whereas we climate scientists know we are still a long, long, way from 2 degrees let alone 1.5 degrees."

Taryn Fransen, senior fellow of the Global Climate Program at the World Resources Institute, an environmental research organization, said in an online briefing that while it's very positive that many new countries have pledged to get to net zero emissions, the devil is in the details.

"The problem is that a lot of [the countries] that are taking on these net zero pledges haven't yet put forward a credible plan to get there," she said. "And their 2030 targets don't suggest the kind of near term transformative change that will be needed to get on track. In particular, you've got countries like Australia, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, putting forward net-zero pledges, but not making any meaningful improvements to their 2030 targets," she added.

Al Gore wants to throw a switch

Former US Vice President Al Gore had a lot of praise for the young people marching through Glasgow on Friday. Speaking during the official conference, he said the world leaders need to "legitimize their expectations for a future that is worthy of them."

"We can do so but we must put the period of delay and distraction and expedience in the past, recognize that we have entered a period of consequences and make it a period of solutions," he said.

Gore, who is a fierce climate change advocate, said humanity has the power to save the world if the political will can be mustered.

"It's as if we can throw a switch and save the future of our civilization," Gore said. He also emphasized a common theme this week: that promises are great, but they must be kept in order to have an impact.

"We have the tools that we need to solve the crisis. We have heard pledges that will move us in a long direction toward these solutions. We must ensure that these pledges are kept," Gore said.

Negotiators hard at work

The first week of the COP26 summit will wrap up Saturday, and negotiations on some of the key aspects of the Paris Agreement are well under way. The Paris Agreement was adopted in 2015, and committed the countries that ratified it to limit global warming to 2 degrees Celsius, and preferably 1.5 degrees. But some of the details have yet to be hashed out.

Specifically, the national delegates are still trying to figure out the rules to implement Article 6 of the accord, which established the need for carbon emissions trading.

The trades work roughly like this: Countries that are exceeding what they had pledged to cut in emissions can sell the overflow to countries that can't meet their own targets. It would be an incentive to for countries to go beyond what they promised, and provides a bail out for countries that are struggling.

Leaders are attempting to create rules that would lead to good transparency on how carbon emissions are traded. They aim to capture things like how often countries need to report their progress and how to avoid double-counting emissions cuts -- since you shouldn't be able to count toward your own pledge what you've just sold to another country.

Ella Nilsen contributed reporting.


FROM – Guardian UK



Summary of the main developments on the fifth day of the UN climate summit in Glasgow

By Oliver Holmes and Bibi van der Zee  Thu 5 Nov 2021 14.08 EDT


Several thousand protesters marched into central Glasgow for a youth protest. Children took to the streets with their parents, classmates and teachers. They demanded that world leaders do more to stop polluters and save the planet from catastrophic rising temperatures.

Climate activist Greta Thunberg slammed Cop26 as a “failure” and a “PR event”. “The leaders are not doing nothing, they are actively creating loopholes and shaping frameworks to benefit themselves and to continue profiting from this destructive system,” she said.

Scientists revealed that the carbon dioxide emissions of the richest 1% of humanity are on track to be 30 times greater than the level compatible with keeping global heating below 1.5C.

An updated UN analysis found that global carbon emissions are on track to rise by 13.7% by 2030. That is in stark contrast to the 50% cut that is needed by then to retain the possibility of keeping the global temperature rise to 1.5C and avoid the worst impacts of the climate crisis.

However, initial analysis by the Energy Transition Commission showed that commitments and initiatives seen in the first week of Cop26 – if fully delivered by nations – would amount to 40% of the emissions cuts needed by 2030 to keep the world on track to a maximum of 1.5C of global heating.

The US climate envoy, John Kerry, said the $100bn promised by rich nations to poor nations can now be delivered in 2022, a year earlier than previously thought. It would still be two years later than its initial target.


On the sixth day in Glasgow, our leaders gave to we…

Six marchers marching…

Five lumps of coal!

Four tonnes bleached coral…

Three climate debt traps…

Two big, fat farts…

And a pivot on survival of world trees.




By Euronews with AFP, AP  •  Updated: 07/11/2021


COP26 action wasn't just unfolding in host city Glasgow today, but across continents. Protests all over the world took place, urging world leaders to do more to tackle the climate crisis.

"We are taking to the streets across the world this weekend to push governments from climate inaction to climate justice," said Asad Rehman, a spokesperson for the COP Coalition.

·         COP26 latest: Climate protests go global as activists slam summit as 'failure'

Here are five key takeaways from day six of the UN climate conference, which was also Nature Day:

1. Tens of thousands march through Glasgow for second consecutive day

An estimated 100,000 protesters braved torrential rain in Glasgow on Saturday to take part in worldwide demonstrations against climate inaction at COP26, according to organisers.

The giant rally came after tens of thousands of young people took to the streets of Glasgow on Friday to denounce inaction and greenwashing at the global climate summit.

·         Climate activists denounce 'greenwashing' at COP26

·         COP26: Meet the youth climate activists demanding immediate action

·         COP26 latest: Greta Thunberg slams summit as 'failure' at Fridays for Future March

"Our world is under attack, stand up fight back," they chanted.

"We're clear that warm words are not good enough - and that the next week of talks must see a serious ramping up of concrete plans," said Scottish activist Mikaela Loach at the protest.

Jill Bird, a 66-year old came all the way from Bristol to ask rich countries to live up to their promise of providing $100 billion (€86 billion) annually to developing nations.

It "keeps being promised and promised and promised and doesn't actually materialise," she said.

Security was ramped up in Glasgow and many city-centre shops closed for Saturday's march.

2. From Sydney to Paris, COP26 climate protests go global

However, the action on Saturday did not just unfold in Glasgow but across continents.

From Sydney to Paris, including Istanbul, tens of thousands of protesters took to the streets all over the world this Saturday.

Organisers said over 250 events took place around the world, in addition to a digital global rally.

Australia kicked off a series of global climate marches, with protesters in Sydney and Melbourne dressed as lumps of coal or Prime Minister Scott Morrison, a vigorous defender of the mining industry.

They labelled the talks as "a sham" and their national leader "an absolute embarrassment."

In London, about 1,000 people gathered in iconic locations, from the Bank of England to Trafalgar Square. Some placards read: "Less talk more action" and "No More COP outs."

In Paris, hundreds of people rallied in front of the Paris City Hall, carrying a giant banner reading, "Climate inaction = crimes against the living."

Protesters also hung a sign to the Olympic rings adorning the city hall that said, "Inactive at C026: Dying in 2050."

There were also protests in the Global South, including in the Philippines.

3. Is COP26 a failure? Not so fast, says expert

Swedish youth activist Greta Thunberg's comment on Friday that COP26 was a "failure" has grabbed media headlines all over the world.

·         Greta Thunberg: 'COP26 is a PR event to fight for the status quo’

But some say it's too early to rush to judgement about the multilateral talks.

"COP26 has barely started," tweeted Michael Mann, director of Penn State's Earth System Science Center. "Activists declaring it dead on arrival makes fossil fuel executives jump for joy."

"Let's call out bad actors, speak truth to power and not allow politicians to make empty promises," the expert said.

"But let's NOT throw out the baby with the bathwater. The COP process is the only viable multilateral vehicle we have right now for global climate action," he added.

4. Small-scale farmers in the spotlight thanks to Idris Elba star power

Today was Nature Day and the summit turned its focus to issues such as land use and sustainable agriculture.

British actor Idris Elba used his star power to draw attention to the role of small-scale farmers, who produce 80 per cent of the food consumed worldwide.

"One day, we'll go to Sainsbury's or Marks & Spencer and food will not be there," he warned at a UN event on sustainable agriculture.

To those who were wondering why he was taking part, Elba, who is a UN Goodwill Ambassador, said it was because "this conversation around food is something that needs to be really amplified, and one thing I’ve got is a big mouth."

"The supply chain is going to be damaged if we don't figure out what to do," Elba insisted.

Ugandan climate activist Vanessa Nakate, 24 told the panel climate change was already causing hunger for millions around the world, including in her own country.

She said a shift from meat to plant-based diets could help save millions of tons of greenhouse gas emissions each year, while freeing up more land that’s currently used for animal feed.

5. 45 countries pledge shift to sustainable farming

A coalition of 45 countries pledged on Saturday "urgent action and investment to protect nature and shift to more sustainable ways of farming," the UK COP26 presidency has said.

About one-quarter of the world’s greenhouse gas emissions come from agriculture, forestry and other land-use, the statement noted, highlighting the urgency to act for more sustainable food systems.

·         Making agriculture sustainable - researchers create the Farm of the Future

·         Meet the EU farmers using fewer pesticides to make agriculture greener

The pledge included a commitment to "leveraging over US$4bn billion of new public sector investment into agricultural innovation," according to the statement.

An environmental group welcomed the pledge but urged more nations to join the coalition.

"We cannot phase out food, like we can fossil fuels and therefore we welcome the Policy Action Agenda for transition to sustainable food and agriculture," said Joao Campari, Global Food Practise Leader at WWF.

“Now we need all countries to endorse this action agenda and utilise the action plan," he added.



On the seventh day in Glasgow, our leaders gave to we…

Seven worlds a-sleeping…

Six marchers marching…

Five lumps of coal!

Four tonnes bleached coral…

Three climate debt traps…

Two big, fat farts…

And a pivot on survival of world trees.


FROM – God

On the Seventh Day, it is decreed that humans rest.  World destroying climate change, however… like rust… never sleeps.

Greta Thunberg is due to speak to tens of thousands of campaigners who will be taking part in the Coalition's Global Day for Climate Justice rally as well.

The demonstrators, calling for governments to commit to cutting emissions, will be marching from Kelvingrove Park to Glasgow Green.

Demonstrations are also due to take place in London and other cities across the world.

There is then a day off on Sunday.


On the eighth day in Glasgow, our leaders gave to we…

Eight carbon credits…

Seven worlds a-sleeping…

Six marchers marching…

Five lumps of coal!

Four tonnes bleached coral…

Three climate debt traps…

Two big, fat farts…

And a pivot on survival of world trees.


The second week begins with a focus on adaptation - which means coping with a changed climate, and has been underfunded so far - and Loss and Damage, which is the inevitable consequences of human-caused climate change. It is another key pillar of climate policy and a thorny issue.

It starts with representatives from communities on the frontline of climate change sharing their experiences and outlining what countries should be doing to help.

The headline event will see ministers and leaders commit to building a more climate-resilient future and how they will contribute.

Talks exploring the losses and damages from climate change will also take place and the day will finish with a global tour of how countries are tackling the crisis.


FROM – washpost


The provisional draft accelerates how often countries would need to ramp up emissions-reduction targets and makes direct reference to phasing out coal

By Brady Dennis, Steven Mufson and Sarah Kaplan  November 9, 2021|Updated November 10, 2021 at 6:58 a.m. EST


GLASGOW, Scotland — COP26 organizers released a preliminary draft early Wednesday of an agreement on how countries will work together to curb climate change. The language will evolve over the course of the final days of the conference, and it contains several provisions that are likely to be contentious.


·         The draft seeks to speed up emissions cuts. Noting that current national pledges are insufficient to avert catastrophic warming, the draft urges countries to update their formal carbon-cutting goals before the end of 2022 — especially those countries that have not adopted more ambitious targets since the Paris agreement was signed six years ago.

·         The text calls on participants in the agreement to phase out coal and subsidies for fossil fuels. Neither “coal” nor “fossil fuels” more generally were mentioned in the landmark Paris agreement.

·         The draft “reaffirms” the Paris agreement goal of limiting warming to well below 2 degrees Celsius and pursuing a target of 1.5 degrees Celsius, but it does not commit to meeting the 1.5 threshold — which scientists and vulnerable countries increasingly say the world cannot afford to miss.

·         The draft calls for developed countries to boost their aid to lower-income nations, including doubling funds to help with adaptation and providing “enhanced and additional support” for addressing the irreversible impacts of climate change, known as loss and damage. But it does not mention a clear financial mechanism for addressing loss and damage, nor does it offer details on what support rich nations would be expected to deliver beyond 2025.

·         The draft text only includes “placeholder” paragraphs for one of the thorniest issues being discussed: rules for measuring and reporting countries’ emissions back to the United Nations.

·         The text doesn’t mention the contentious “Article 6″ of the Paris agreement, which would establish the rules for a global market for buying and selling carbon.

The draft represents an opening bid of sorts. Some parts may come out, while some text may be added. The negotiators are arguing about the particulars of the language. But the arguments also reflect different ideas about how — and how aggressively — to address climate change.

Here is a glimpse at four fights that lie ahead this week:

Common time frames

The Paris climate agreement calls on countries to submit new or updated national climate commitments every five years, with the idea being that those goals will grow more ambitious over time. But as this year has made clear, that “ratchet mechanism” has not always proved reliable. Updated plans from the likes of China, Australia, Russia and other nations have disappointed activists and organizers who had hoped for more-aggressive and near-term promises.

Between that reality and the fact that climate disasters are becoming more frequent and intense, there has been a steady drumbeat in Glasgow from representatives of some particularly vulnerable nations to require countries to revisit their climate targets more often.

“I don’t see how we can wait another five years,” Juan Pablo Osornio, senior political lead for Greenpeace International, said Tuesday. “We need to see an acceleration.”

While some nations will no doubt resist any formal mandate for more frequent updates, negotiators at COP26 could still agree to nudge world leaders to more frequently revisit their climate goals — and what they are doing to meet them.

Sign up for the latest news about climate change, energy and the environment, delivered every Thursday

Climate finance

More than a decade ago, wealthy nations pledged billions of dollars to help vulnerable countries curb carbon emissions and adapt to climate impacts. Starting in 2020, they were supposed to provide the developing world with $100 billion a year.

But a week before COP26, wealthy countries announced they probably won’t meet their $100 billion climate finance target until 2023.

Vulnerable countries — which have borne the brunt of escalating climate impacts — are now seeking more-robust assistance, including a commitment to direct just as much money to adaptation efforts as is spent on cutting carbon. They want the shortfall in climate finance to be treated as “arrears,” a term commonly used for poorer nations who have trouble keeping pace with their debts. But wealthy nations are unlikely to agree.

Nations are also expected to start crafting a plan for providing climate finance after 2025, when the existing pledge ends. This is likely to be a contentious process, as developing countries have said their needs could top $1 trillion a year.

Vulnerable countries are also seeking dedicated funding for “loss and damage” — unavoidable, irreversible harms caused by climate change. But developed nations have historically resisted such measures.

Climate change brings irreversible harm to poor countries. At COP26, rich ones face pressure to foot the bill.


The climate talks in Glasgow have been marked by pronouncements. Leaders have vowed to phase out coal financing, cut their methane emissions and halt deforestation. Nations have promised to erase their carbon footprints by the middle of the century.

But one key part of the negotiations is honing the rules around how to make sure that countries report clearly and accurately on what they are doing to meet such goals. Ultimately, the idea is that transparency will lead to accountability.

Archie Young, Britain’s lead negotiator, said Tuesday that several “main areas of convergence” remain as these talks enter the homestretch.

Among them: creating a uniform, understandable structure for how countries report progress toward hitting their national climate targets, as well as outlining ways to help nations that have less capacity or expertise to meet transparency requirements.

Countries’ climate pledges built on flawed data, Post investigation finds

Carbon markets

Negotiators are zeroing in on complex rules for carbon trading, or the buying and selling of carbon credits, which could become a $300 billion business by the 2030s.

Leftover from earlier climate summits, those rules are known as “Article 6,” named for the section of the Paris accord that addressed the issue. “For the business community at large, Article 6 is one of the most important parts of the package,” said Dirk Forrister, chief executive of the International Emissions Trading Association.

The document being drafted by ministers from Singapore and Norway has weighed a new trading program that would distribute carbon credits in smaller and smaller amounts over time. The most carbon-efficient companies could sell their extra credits. Other, less-efficient companies would have to buy credits instead. And overall carbon emissions would decline.

Carbon-trading regimes already exist. There are mandatory rules in place in Europe, and voluntary but effective ones in California and Quebec. China has even started a trading system for the power sector alone.

But a new carbon-trading system would bring along problems. Brazil, for example, wants to be allowed to do private transactions without reporting them to formal exchanges to avoid proper accounting. And delegates must figure out how to value credits from the Clean Development Mechanism, a U.N. program that ran into difficulties after being created more than 20 years ago.

In addition, some delegates want a new trading scheme to set aside a 1.5 percent fee for adaptation funding.

“This is highly charged politically,” Forrister said. “If there’s anything worse than a federal tax, it’s a U.N. tax.”


More on COP26 and climate change

The latest from Glasgow

·         Five big takeaways from COP26

·         ‘It is not enough’: World leaders react to COP26 climate agreement

·         Nations reach agreement to speed climate action, but world remains off target

·         The full Glasgow climate pact, annotated

After two weeks of talks in Glasgow, diplomats from almost 200 countries have agreed to ramp up their carbon-cutting commitments, phase out some fossil fuels and increase aid to poor countries on the front lines of climate change. Read the full agreement here.

More on the causes and effects climate change: How we know global warming is real | How climate change is making parts of the world too hot and humid to survive | The undeniable link between weather disasters and climate change

More on climate change solutions: Tracking Biden’s environmental actions | The world’s biggest plant to capture CO2 from the air just opened in Iceland | Why we shouldn’t give in to climate despair | Costa Rica’s environmental minister wants to build a green economy. She just needs time.



On the ninth day in Glasgow, our leaders gave to we…

Nine code red warnings…

Eight carbon credits…

Seven worlds a-sleeping…

Six marchers marching…

Five lumps of coal!

Four tonnes bleached coral…

Three climate debt traps…

Two big, fat farts…

And a pivot on survival of world trees.


This day will explore how women are disproportionately impacted by climate change and the importance of their leadership, as well as the science crucial to limiting the temperature rise to 1.5C.

Headline events include one about advancing gender equality in climate action and another discussing the August UN scientists' report and how to keep 1.5C in reach.

The flagship innovation event in the afternoon will explore clean energy solutions from around the world.


FROM – Sky News


The IPCC assessment finds the 1.5C warming target will be breached without "immediate, rapid and large scale reductions in greenhouse gas emissions".

By Victoria Seabrook,   Monday 9 August 2021 23:27, UK


Heatwaves, flooding and droughts will be more frequent and more intense as the world is set to hit the 1.5C global warming limit within the next 20 years, a landmark United Nations review has predicted.

The milestone scientific assessment says the rate of warming in the last 2,000 years has been "unprecedented" and it was "unequivocal" that human influence has made the world hotter.

In fact, it is already responsible for 1.1C of global warming since 1850, the report said.

UN secretary-general Antonio Guterres described the findings as a "code red for humanity" and scientists, campaigners and politicians lined up to call for a shift away from polluting fossil fuels and to end deforestation.

Every inhabited region on Earth is already impacted by climate change and the report found that the accepted 1.5C limit will be met even in the best case scenario, causing more regular extreme weather events.

Under the 2015 Paris Agreement, more than 190 governments agreed the world should limit global warming to 2C or ideally 1.5C above pre-industrial levels.

The report warns that even in the most optimistic scenarios, some changes are already locked in to our systems, including sea level rise.

This will never be reversed, not even under the lowest emissions scenario, it said.

Climate activist Greta Thunberg, who has confirmed on Monday she will attend the UN climate talks COP26 in Glasgow, said the report "confirms what we already know... that we are in an emergency".

"We can still avoid the worst consequences, but not if we continue like today, and not without treating the crisis like a crisis," she said on Twitter.

Unveiling the report, UN environment programme chief Inger Ansersen said: "Nobody's safe and it's getting worse faster. We must treat climate change as an immediate threat."

The language in the review is bolder than the last equivalent report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the UN's climate science body, which in 2013 called human influence on the climate system "clear".

As in previous years, the report will likely set the scene for this year's annual UN climate change negotiations, COP26.

The government's climate chief Alok Sharma, who is leading COP26, called the report a "wake-up call for the world" that showed "the deficiency of our response to date".

He told Sky News: "I think it is a wake-up call and I think people should understand from this that unless we get to grips with climate change now, humanity is facing catastrophe - I think it is as stark as that.

"And that is why all countries need to come forwards - and that is the message that I am going to continue to deliver as I speak to governments around the world."

And Prime Minister Boris Johnson added: "The IPCC report couldn't be clearer: humans are causing potentially catastrophic climate change. The world must act together at COP26 to avoid incalculable damage in the future."

The "good news" in the report, said Dr Joeri Rogelj, climate change lecturer at Imperial College London, was that if the world did achieve net zero by 2050, there was a "significant chance" that we eventually stabilise below 1.5C.

Lead author Dr Tamsin Edwards told Sky News: "That is something people may see as optimistic, but we're not there, and we are on higher emissions pathways at the moment that would lead to much greater climate change."

Unless there are "immediate, rapid and large scale reductions in greenhouse gas emissions", the 1.5C target will be beyond reach, she added.

This is the first time the influential group of scientists could say climate change is already impacting every inhabited region on the planet - thanks to advances in attribution science, which which assesses human influence on weather.

The IPCC investigated five future scenarios based on how much carbon dioxide the world continues to emit and what we do to compensate.

They found that even under the most optimistic pathway, which assumes "very low" emissions and achieving net zero around 2050, the world will hit 1.5 degrees in the next 20 years - though it could level off at 1.4C towards the end of the century.

The authors have stressed that the goal of limiting warming to 1.5C is not a "cliff edge".

"The consequences get worse and worse and worse as we get warmer and warmer," said Ed Hawkins, climate science professor at Reading University. "And so every tonne of CO2 matters and every bit of warming matters."

Many countries including the UK have pledged by 2050 to reach net zero - which means reducing emissions as much as possible and offsetting the rest - but have been criticised for failing to match this rhetoric with action.

President Biden said: "We can't wait to tackle the climate crisis. The signs are unmistakable. The science is undeniable. And the cost of inaction keeps mounting."

Greenpeace UK's chief scientist Dr Doug Parr said this generation of world leaders was the "last that can afford to ignore" the "gravity of the climate crisis".

Dr Parr said the increased "frequency, scale and intensity of climate disasters that have scorched and flooded many parts of the world in recent months is the result of past inaction".

"We need concrete policies to cut carbon emissions as fast as possible, phase out fossil fuels, transform our food system and deliver more cash to the countries worst hit by the climate crisis," he added.

The report cautioned 2C warming would likely breach extreme heat thresholds for agriculture and health.

The assessment found carbon removal could reverse some of the increase in global temperatures - although a lot of this technology is unproven to work at scale, says Friends of the Earth.

Labour leader Sir Keir Starmer said: "The IPCC report is the starkest reminder yet that the climate crisis is here right now and is the biggest long-term threat we face. The biggest threat we now face is not climate denial but climate delay."


On the tenth day in Glasgow, our leaders gave to we…

Ten “pore” children singing…

Nine code red warnings…

Eight carbon credits…

Seven worlds a-sleeping…

Six marchers marching…

Five lumps of coal!

Four tonnes bleached coral…

Three climate debt traps…

Two big, fat farts…

And a pivot on survival of world trees.


The summit will then look at the mass market for zero-emission vehicles and the establishment of 'green shipping corridors'. Shipping is notoriously hard to decarbonise.

Leaders from the car market who have committed to 100% zero-emission vehicles sale by 2040 or earlier, will host the headline event.

The aviation sector and road freight industry are also on the table.


From –



By SHAUNE CHOW Published NOVEMBER 10, 2021 Updated NOVEMBER 12, 2021


Cabinet minister Grace Fu delivered Singapore’s national statement at a global climate summit in Glasgow on Nov 9, 2021, calling for urgent collective action and saying Singapore would not shy away from taking bold action.

"We are at the point of no return."

That was the message I got from reading the latest assessment report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) earlier this year.

It left me anxious.

Experts and activists have pointed to the ongoing 26th edition of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP26) as the world's last best chance to save itself from planetary crisis.

It is with this odd mix of hope and anxiousness that I followed news emerging from the summit, waiting with bated breath for leaders from Singapore and the world to step up and create a habitable future for my generation and the ones to come.

Minister for Sustainability and the Environment Grace Fu delivered Singapore’s national statement at the conference on Tuesday (Nov 9), calling for “urgent collective action” and saying that Singapore would “not shy away from taking bold action”.

While I commend these strong statements, I can’t help but feel disappointed by Singapore’s existing climate policies and commitments made at COP26 so far.

They do little to reflect the urgent and bold action needed. 

Though Ms Fu pointed again to Singapore’s Green Plan as a “concrete near-term plan” to achieve Singapore’s net-zero ambition, it promises only to halve its 2030 peak greenhouse-gas emissions by 2050.

This remains a far cry from the IPCC’s recommendation to reach net-zero emissions by 2050.

The Government previously said the aim was to reach net-zero emissions “as soon as viable” in the second half of the century.

Our commitments at COP26 have done little to inspire hope.

Carbon copy? COP26 confronts familiar roadblocks on market rules

Singapore was not a signatory to the landmark Declaration on Forest and Land Use, which pledges to halt and reverse forest loss and land degradation by 2030 as a tool to fight climate change and limit the rise in global temperatures.

And of our large local banks, only DBS has committed to the Net-Zero Banking Alliance, which strives for net-zero emissions by 2050.

While it is heartening to hear that Singapore has joined the Powering Past Coal Alliance to phase out unabated coal power by 2050, I can't help but feel it is merely incremental with coal making up just 1.2 per cent of our electricity generation. Coal and peat form only about 0.3 per cent of our energy imports.

There has been no detailed commitment made in relation to the other unclean energy sources of natural gas and petroleum, with petroleum products forming 62 per cent of our energy imports.

We need to walk the talk and take “bold action” that Ms Fu calls for in her statement. As the COP26 nears its close, I urge stronger and more inspiring commitments from Singapore.

We are already teetering on the brink of no return.

The future of my generation lies in the climate commitments Singapore can make, and I wait with bated breath in the hope that Singapore punches above its weight to protect us from unprecedented planetary devastation.





On the eleventh day in Glasgow, our leaders gave to we…

Eleven ladies lashing…

Ten “pore” children singing…

Nine code red warnings…

Eight carbon credits…

Seven worlds a-sleeping…

Six marchers marching…

Five lumps of coal!

Four tonnes bleached coral…

Three climate debt traps…

Two big, fat farts…

And a pivot on survival of world trees.


FROM – (Germany)

COP26: Has this year's climate conference been a success?


As the UN climate summit COP26 in Glasgow comes to a close, negotiators are scrambling to find common ground. Based on what we know so far, has this year's conference been all blah blah blah? Four voices from Glasgow.

With carbon emissions rising and current promises at the UN climate conference putting the world on a track for disastrous levels of global warming, it's crunch time for delegates to come up with solutions to limit temperature rise below 2 degrees Celsius (3.6 degrees Fahrenheit).

As representatives from around 200 countries take part in the critical negotiations in Glasgow, Scotland, one of the main sticking points is funding to help poorer nations green their economies and adapt to the effects of heating already being felt across the globe.

Negotiators are also trying to find compromise on how to trade carbon credits and slash greenhouse gas emissions. Developing nations are demanding historical polluters commit to loss and damage payments to help nations recover from extreme weather events and other climate change-related impacts.

Will negotiators overcome the deadlocks and has COP26 been a success so far? Ahead of the final agreement, DW asked four delegates with different insights for their take on how this year's UN summit is going.

Lina Yassin, climate negotiator, Sudan: 'African countries on the front line'

"It has been a success in some areas, but in most areas it actually hasn't been that successful. In terms of the pledges made at the start of the first week and the leaders' summit, we saw a lot of ambition, a lot of leaders showing that they want to actually do something about climate change. That was a positive sign, but that did not really translate into negotiation rooms," said the 23-year-old Sudanese climate negotiator and operations manager at Climate Tracker, a global research group that monitors action to reduce emissions.

"We still don't have a clear draft text for the decisions that will come out of COP. From our position — Sudan and the African group — the problem with the current text that we have is that it doesn't emphasize a lot on the finance and adaptation. And these are critical areas for developing countries," she said.

"But the good thing about this — and I have observed that at this COP — is that developing countries did not allow this to be swept off the table. They kept coming back to this topic. And right now, in the new draft, we are expecting that the loss and damage section [will] have more concrete action," she added. "And the way we stand on this as the African group is that we will not make compromises, because historically speaking, we shouldn't be the ones making compromises. We African countries are on the front line when it comes to climate change."

Jennifer Eison, NGO campaigner, US: 'We don't have until 2050'

"I think for some countries it has been a success. For countries like mine in the United States… we have a long way to go. I think that we can be more bold in the stances that we're taking and commit to doing more," said the campaign manager for the US NGO Action for the Climate Emergency.

"We know that the time for incremental change is no longer. We can't stand by passively. We have to actively combat the climate crisis. The IPCC [Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change] said we had until 2030 and even that we're behind," she added.

"It makes me quite nervous as someone who's working with young people, knowing that there are so many people who are already vulnerable. We don't have until 2050 to wait and we need bold climate policies changed and enacted on right now." 

Oluwaseyi Moejoh, activist, Nigeria: Climate change 'won't wait'

"To be very honest, I really don't think COP has been much of a success. Looking at what has come up at COP so far, the pledges have been towards a future date," 20-year-old environmentalist from Nigeria said. 

"While we have to be realistic, we also have to put into consideration the fact that right now we are undergoing injustice caused by climate change. And it won't stop, it won't wait … Inaction is very costly," Moejoh, who helped co-found a circular economy initiative called U-recycle, told DW.

"I'm really pleased with how much young people were able to speak … We hope that all that we have said, the stories that have been shared, lessons learnt from countries, from wonderful communities — I believe leaders have actually listened. But now beyond this, how can we conclude all of that into urgent action as soon as possible?"

Anke Herold, climate scientist, Germany: 'A spirit of compromise'

"We see quite good pledges in the long term, but insufficient action in the short and medium-term. And there I think the parties here need to come up with increased nationally determined contributions on the shorter timescale and policies that are really able to implement those ambitious goals," said Herold, who was lead author on several reports for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and now heads German environmental think tank Öko-Institut.

Herold, who has been following COP as a negotiator for the EU since 1998, said this year there was "a spirit of finding compromises," which was "surprising and different from the last COP in Madrid."

However, this year because the pre-COP negotiations took place virtually instead of in-person, there's a huge amount of technical work left to do and Herold fears negotiators will run out of time with controversial issues such as climate finance still in the air.

"The developed countries see loss and damage as one sub-item under adaptation and not something totally separate from adaptation. They don't want to have a finance stream only for loss and damage," she said. "I think this is something that will be a very political item until the final day and where I don't clearly see how that point will be resolved here."

These interviews have been edited and condensed for clarity and length.


By Lisa Friedman

More than 10 years ago, countries promised to mobilize $100 billion annually by 2020 to help developing countries pivot to renewable energy and prepare for the effects of climate change.

That promise was not fulfilled, and the latest draft agreement being negotiated at the U.N. climate summit notes “with serious concern” the gap between what was pledged and what was delivered.

It “urges” wealthy countries to increase the amount of money they give now and in the future. It also “requests” that developed countries consider moves to “significantly increase” the amount of money they give to help vulnerable countries adapt to climate change.

Currently, money to help develop wind, solar and other renewable energy far outpaces funding for things like building sea walls or planting mangroves to protect against storm surges.

Activists said they were broadly disappointed with the proposed accord’s latest language on funding for poor and vulnerable countries.

Timmons Roberts, a professor of environmental studies at Brown University, called the language “wiggle words,” because it could allow wealthy countries to wiggle out of their promises.

“I’m a college professor,” he said. “If I request my students to consider doing the reading for class, how many do I expect to actually do it? Very few.”

Climate activists said on Saturday that they were furious to see that the latest draft of a potential United Nations climate agreement had weakened provisions aimed at helping the world’s most vulnerable countries cope with today’s climate-fueled disasters.

The third and latest draft, released early Saturday by organizers in Glasgow, is the clearest signal yet of what diplomats from nearly 200 countries are likely to agree on at the close of the two-week summit.

But as ministers and others prepared to discuss the draft on Saturday afternoon, a major flash point was expected over “loss and damage” — one of the most politically contentious issues in the negotiations.

“I expect some drama,” said Jennifer Morgan, the executive director of Greenpeace International.

The new text eliminates a reference to the creation of a facility that would have provided financial support for technical assistance to cope with losses and damages from ever fiercer storms, floods and droughts brought about by greenhouse gas emissions that wealthy countries have spewed into the atmosphere for decades. That already did not go as far as vulnerable countries wanted.

The new version calls only for dialogue to “discuss the arrangements for the funding of activities” to address poor countries’ needs.

Saleemul Huq, an adviser to the Climate Vulnerable Forum, a coalition of 48 countries, said in a tweet that the language on loss and damage “has in fact gone BACKWARDS from yesterday’s text!”

Several negotiators and observers watching the talks said the United States had been instrumental in blocking a clear mention of a new stream of funding for poor countries to address losses and damages from climate change.

Farhana Yamin, an environmental lawyer who is working closely with vulnerable countries in the climate talks, called the new text “appalling” and said that unless it changed, the agreement would “go down in history as having failed all tests of moral and political credibility.”

Before it started, the United Nations global climate summit in Glasgow known as COP26 was billed by its chief organizer as the “last, best hope” to save the planet.

Halfway through, optimistic reviews of its progress noted that heads of state and titans of industry showed up in force to start the gathering with splashy new climate promises, a sign that momentum was building in the right direction.

The pessimistic outlook? Gauzy promises mean little without concrete plans to follow through. The Swedish activist Greta Thunberg accused the conference of consisting of a lot of “blah, blah, blah.”

On Saturday, diplomats from nearly 200 countries struck a major agreement aimed at intensifying efforts to fight climate change, by calling on governments to return next year with stronger plans to curb their planet-warming emissions and urging wealthy nations to “at least double” funding by 2025 to protect the most vulnerable nations from the hazards of a hotter planet.

Here’s a look at some key takeaways from the 26th annual United Nations climate change summit.

Time for action is running out

The agreement established a clear consensus that all nations need to do much more, immediately, to prevent a catastrophic rise in global temperatures.

When the conference opened the U.N. Secretary General, António Guterres, said the top priority must be to limit the rise in global temperatures to just 1.5 degrees Celsius, or 2.7 degrees Fahrenheit, above preindustrial levels. That’s the threshold, scientists have warned, beyond which the risk of calamities like deadly heat waves, water shortages and ecosystem collapse grows immensely. (The world has already warmed 1.1 degrees Celsius.)

“The reality is you’ve got two different truths going on,” Helen Mountford, vice president for climate and economics at the World Resources Institute, said last week. “We’ve made much more progress than we ever could’ve imagined a couple years ago. But it’s still nowhere near enough.”

The agreement outlines specific steps the world should take, from slashing global carbon dioxide emissions nearly in half by 2030 to curbing emissions of methane, another potent greenhouse gas. And it sets up new rules to hold countries accountable for the progress they make — or fail to make.

The environment minister of the Maldives, Shauna Aminath, said the latest text lacked the “urgency” that vulnerable countries like hers required. “What looks balanced and pragmatic to other parties will not help the Maldives adapt in time,” she said.

Who needs to cut and how much?

The final agreement leaves unresolved the crucial question of how much and how quickly each nation should cut its emissions over the next decade.

Rich countries, including the United States, Canada, Japan and much of western Europe, account for just 12 percent of the global population today but are responsible for 50 percent of all the planet-warming greenhouse gases released from fossil fuels and industry over the past 170 years.

President Biden and European leaders have insisted that countries like India, Indonesia and South Africa need to accelerate their shift away from coal power and other fossil fuels. But those countries counter that they lack the financial resources to do so, and that rich countries have been stingy with aid.

A decade ago, the world’s wealthiest economies pledged to mobilize $100 billion per year in climate finance for poorer countries by 2020. But they have fallen short by tens of billions of dollars annually. The COP26 agreement still leaves many developing countries without the funds they need to build cleaner energy and cope with increasingly extreme weather disasters.

The call for disaster aid and regulation increases

One of the biggest fights at the summit in Glasgow revolved around whether — and how — the world’s wealthiest nations, which are disproportionately responsible for global warming to date, should compensate poorer nations for the damages caused by rising temperatures.

Calls for this fund, an issue called “loss and damage,” is separate from money to help poorer countries adapt to a changing climate. Loss and damage is a matter of historic responsibility, its proponents say, and would pay for irreparable losses, such as the disappearance of national territory, culture and ecosystems.

The Paris agreement in 2015 urged clearer rules on how to allow polluting companies and countries to buy and trade permits to lower global emissions, but the extremely dense and technical subject continued as a topic of discussion well into Saturday in Glasgow.

Negotiators announced a major deal on how to regulate the fast-growing global market in carbon offsets, in which one company or country compensates for its own emissions by paying someone else to reduce theirs. One of the thorniest technical issues is how to properly account for these global trades so that any reductions in emissions aren’t overestimated or double-counted.

Vulnerable countries insist that rich nations should grant them a share of proceeds from carbon market transactions to help them build resilience to climate change. The United States and the European Union have opposed doing so, but island nations in particular want a mechanism to ensure that carbon trading leads to an overall reduction in global emissions.

“We want a credible market that will deliver reductions in emissions, not just a free pass for countries to buy cheap credits offshore to meet their national requirements,” said Ian Fry, a negotiator for the Solomon Islands, an archipelago in the southwest Pacific Ocean.


Other international agreements came out of the summit

·         U.S. and China: The two countries announced a joint agreement to do more to cut emissions this decade, and China committed for the first time to develop a plan to reduce methane, a potent greenhouse gas. The pact between the rivals, which are the world’s two biggest polluters, surprised delegates to the summit. The agreement was short on specifics and while China agreed to “phase down” coal starting in 2026, it did not specify by how much or over what period of time.

·         Deforestation: Leaders of more than 100 countries, including Brazil, China, Russia and the United States, vowed to end deforestation by 2030. The agreement covers about 85 percent of the world’s forests, which are crucial to absorbing carbon dioxide and slowing the pace of global warming. Some advocacy groups criticized the agreement as lacking teeth, noting that similar efforts have failed in the past.

·         Methane: More than 100 countries agreed to cut emissions of methane, a potent planet-warming gas, 30 percent by the end of this decade. The pledge was part of a push by the Biden administration, which also announced that the Environmental Protection Agency would limit the methane coming from about one million oil and gas rigs across the United States.

·         India: India joined the growing chorus of nations pledging to reach “net zero” emissions, setting a 2070 deadline to stop adding greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. One of the world’s largest consumers of coal, India also said that it would significantly expand the portion of its total energy mix that comes from renewable sources, and that half of its energy would come from sources other than fossil fuels by 2030.

The different faces of climate action

There was a clear gender and generation gap at the Glasgow talks. Those with the power to make decisions about how much the world warms in the coming decades are mostly old and male. Those who are angriest about the pace of climate action are mostly young and female.

Malik Amin Aslam, an adviser to the prime minister of Pakistan, scoffed at some of the distant net zero goals being announced during the conference, including India’s: “With an average age of 60, I don’t think anyone in the negotiating room would live to experience that net zero in 2070,” he said.

On the first day of the conference, Greta Thunberg joined scores of protesters on the streets outside the United Nations climate conference in Glasgow. Throughout the two-week conference she and other young climate activists — including Vanessa Nakate, Dominika Lasota and Mitzi Tan — made numerous appearances at protests.

Ms. Thunberg told the BBC in an interview ahead of the summit that she had not been officially invited to speak. She added that she thought the organizers had not invited a lot of young speakers because they “might be scared that if they invite too many ‘radical’ young people then that might make them look bad,” she said, using air quotations.

Just holding the talks during the pandemic posed a challenge

The climate summit, which was delayed last year, is one of the biggest international gatherings held during the coronavirus pandemic.

Many summit participants traveled from countries where vaccines are still not widely available. Globally, fewer than half of all adults have been vaccinated against Covid-19, illustrating the inequities of vaccination. Travel and quarantine restrictions meant additional costs in both time and money for lodging, which made the trip impossible for some.

And some participants, like President Xi Jinping of China, Vladimir V. Putin of Russia and Jair Bolsonaro of Brazil, decided against traveling at all.

Partway through, conference organizers issued a letter of apology to participants for the long lines and video difficulties, saying that planning around Covid restrictions has been challenging. Patricia Espinosa, the executive secretary of the U.N. climate body, asked attendees to “bear with us” as organizers grappled with the complex arrangements, like ensuring that all those entering the venue tested negative for the coronavirus, and enforcing controls on the number of people in meeting rooms.

— The New York Times



DJI Note:  Most of those taking the high or the low roads to Glasgow had also attended Joe’s White House Conference less than six months previous… there having sent and received more of the above: promises and PR, not to mention more groveling by Biden in apologetic lamentations concerning Djonald Ungreent’s withdrawal from the Paris accords, his blind-bull-in-the-Chinese-china-shop lurchings, defecations and collidings, plague denialism and random oafishness.  We’ve collected some points and authorities from last spring, highlighted them in red so as to distinguish them from comments and commentary from Glasgow, where available, and have listed these in somber black… per usual… compiled, last Lesson as A through L.  This week, we tackle the bottom dwelling half of the alphabet: Malaysia through Z.  Too much fun!





By Andrew Freedman


GLASGOW, Scotland — When Tina Stege, the Marshall Islands climate envoy, walks into a negotiating room, she carries a burden that most other negotiators here do not. Her task is ensuring the survival of her low-lying island nation.

What's happening: In an interview with Axios Thursday on the sidelines of the summit, a visibly exhausted Stege talked about what separates her thinking on the COP26 climate summit from the others' approach to these talks.

Driving the news: As the climate talks here enter their final rounds with multiple consecutive late nights, Stege is among those urging fellow members of the High Ambition Coalition (HAC), which includes the U.S. and EU, to "hold the line" in fighting for an agreement that keeps the Paris Agreement's temperature target of 1.5°C above preindustrial levels within reach.

The big picture: The HAC is an unusually broad alliance, encompassing small island states and major industrialized nations.

Context: It was the Marshall Islands that helped form the High Ambition Coalition during the Paris Agreement talks, when then-foreign minister Tony deBrum helped push the 1.5-degree goal to the top of the agenda, rallying a diverse alliance around common goals.

What's next: Stege told Axios she's seeking "the balanced Glasgow package." This would contain ambitious provisions on reducing greenhouse gas emissions and boost financing for developing countries to adapt to climate impacts.

The bottom line: "It felt like moving mountains to get here. It really did. And we engage in the process because we have a voice here," Stege said, taking note of her country's strict, three-week quarantine requirements.





By Nick O'Malley November 10, 2021 — 8.45am


It could have been exhaustion etched into the face of Marshall Island climate envoy Tina Stege, as she spoke with media halfway through day nine of the United Nations climate talks.

It could just as easily have been fear.

The Marshall Islands is an unlikely powerhouse at the COP for its role in founding a grouping called the High Ambition Coalition, a voting bloc of nations that appeared suddenly and dramatically at the Paris climate talks.

The Marshall Islands elder statesman Tony DeBrum, who has since died, managed to craft a coalition that spanned the globe, including small climate-vulnerable nations, then much of Europe and eventually the United States.

The HAC, as its known, is responsible for altering the language of the Paris Agreement to make its goal to hold global warming to “well below 2, preferably to 1.5 degrees Celsius, compared to pre-industrial levels”.

DeBrum began to build the coalition when it became clear to him that above 1.5 degrees, his nation would cease to exist. Today, says Wesley Morgan, a Pacific specialist with the Climate Council, the coalition carries not only moral authority but political heft as a bloc that unites developed and developing nations which have traditionally not acted in concert.

It is working to make the 1.5 degree goal it forced into the Paris Accord the Glasgow document’s central focus, with the support of the current COP presidency which has made “keep 1.5 alive” a slogan of the talks, echoing DeBrum’s own “1.5 to stay alive”.

Stege took to a press conference stage on Tuesday to address a new assessment by Climate Action Tracker that given all the commitments so far made at COP26, the world remains on track for between 2.4 degrees, if governments deliver on their promises, and 2.7 if they continue with their current policies.

 So what does this all mean?” said Stege. “It means we have to focus on increasing the 2030 mitigation ambition. 2030 is the cliff edge, certainly for my country, a small island developing state, but really for the world.”

Asked what failure could mean, she paused and then responded slowly, carefully.

 “As the Marshall Islands [envoy], I can’t accept that failure. Failure is accepting that perhaps there isn’t a future for my country. It’s not acceptable. Therefore, we will continue to work to make sure that this COP puts in place what needs to be there to keep the door open for 1.5.”

For Stege and other members of the coalition, this means not only ensuring that 1.5 degrees remains the focus, but lobbying for a final Glasgow statement to include language that would direct nations to adopt 2030 targets that put them on a realistic trajectory to net zero by 2050.

It would also mean lobbying to set goals in line with 1.5, and to call on those, such as Australia, that have not improved on their 2030 targets to return to the issue next year.

At COP yesterday, a contingent of Democratic Party bigwigs including House speaker Nancy Pelosi and left-wing congresswoman Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez arrived to reinforce the message already delivered by Joe Biden, Barack Obama and John Kerry that the United States was back leading the fight against climate.

This should have been good news for the coalition, or at least better news. The US has again declared its support, but it has not been explicit that it supports all of the coalition’s positions.

And the only reason the Biden administration has had to send such a large contingent of its rockstar proxies is because it is aware that its authority on climate is diminished.

It is battered not just by Donald Trump’s abandonment of the Paris process, but by the difficulty Biden confronts in passing his own climate bills, not to mention the possibility that the party Trump still dominates could soon win mid-term elections and even retake the White House.

In which case the failure Stege so reasonably fears will become far more likely.


President David Kabua, Republic of the Marshall Islands


From – nz



5:12 pm on 24 April 2021